Lacto-Resistance Training: Key Points for Lactate-Induced Muscle Growth
- Researchers compared a high lactate-producing protocol (i.e., Lacto-Resistance Training) to traditional resistance exercise using experienced bodybuilders and its effects on muscle growth for four weeks.
- Lactate production in lacto-resistance training involves a specific protocol designed to produce high lactate levels, a byproduct of anaerobic metabolism.
- Subjects performing the ‘lacto-resistance training’ performed 30 reps at 30% 1RM to failure and then performed 8 reps at 80% 1RM. Another group did traditional resistance training: 5 sets of 15 to 12 reps at 80% 1RM. The weekly training load was the same between groups.
- The Lacto-resistance training group resulted in more lactate and greater muscle growth than the traditional resistance exercise group.
- Lacto-resistance training is beneficial for muscle growth, even for professional athletes who often find it challenging to gain muscle mass through traditional resistance training.
Lactate: A New Signaling Molecule for Muscle Growth Mechanism?
Lactate, once considered a metabolic waste product, has gained attention recently for its potential role in promoting muscle growth. It is a byproduct of anaerobic metabolism and has been associated with muscle growth. Blood flow restriction (BFR) training, a technique combining low-intensity exercise with blood flow occlusion, has been reported to significantly benefit local skeletal muscle, increasing muscle mass, strength, and endurance. (Miller et al., 2021)
There has been debate about whether increased metabolic stress is important for muscle growth. For example, heavy-weight, low rep weight lifting routines that produce little metabolic stress elicits similar muscle growth as high-rep, moderate-weight protocols with high metabolic stress as long as the volume between the groups is similar. (Schoenfeld et al., 2015) This article explores the relationship between lactate, and muscle growth, with a focus on the new study titled “Lacto-resistance training: a method to facilitate muscle hypertrophy in professional bodybuilders” by Mohsen Hatami, Rohollah Nikooie & Ahmad Enhesari.(Hatami et al., 2023)
Mechanisms of Muscle Hypertrophy
Muscle growth, or hypertrophy, is a complex process regulated by various factors, including mechanical tension, metabolic stress, and muscle damage. While mechanical tension has traditionally been considered the primary driver of muscle hypertrophy, emerging evidence suggests that metabolic stress, including lactate production/lactate accumulation, may also play a significant role (Kyun et al., 2020).
Lactate Production, Metabolic Stress, and Muscle Growth Mechanism
Mechanical stress is the main factor in gaining muscle mass, and studies have shown that mechanical stress alone can trigger anabolic signaling. (Krzysztofik et al., 2019) However, while mechanical tension has been extensively researched, there has been a growing focus on lactate production in recent years.
Metabolic stress is the buildup of metabolic byproducts during exercise, leading to greater blood flow and oxygen requirement. (de Freitas et al., 2017) This accumulation can cause fatigue and muscle burn, which may stimulate muscle growth.
Lacto-Resistance Training: A New Approach to Lactate-Induced Muscle Growth
Lactate was once thought of as a metabolic waste product that caused muscle soreness, but we now know this is untrue, and lactate may contribute to muscle growth. (Lawson et al., 2022) A 2020 study observed that lactate administration increased the expression of mRNA and protein associated with protein synthesis factors, indicating its potential to promote skeletal muscle synthesis. (Kyun et al., 2020). Another study revealed that high lactate production, similar to those found in the body during high-intensity exercise, influenced muscle growth. (Tsukamoto et al., 2018) Based on these findings, it can be inferred that lactate administration may have an anabolic effect on muscle tissue.
Not all studies have found that lactate is a direct signaling molecule for muscle growth. A study that utilized placed animals’ legs under chronic tension overload resulted in muscle growth. However, the researchers observed that lactate administration did not affect these effects.(Shirai et al., 2022)
Blood Flow Restriction Training
Developers in Japan introduced Blood Flow Restriction Training (BFR) in the 1960s, commonly referring to it as KAATSU training. This training method requires users to apply a pneumatic cuff (tourniquet) close to the targeted muscle.
Blood flow restriction (BFR) training is a technique that involves restricting blood flow to working muscles during exercise. This restriction leads to lactate accumulation in the muscles, which may contribute to muscle growth. BFR training has been found to result in skeletal muscle hypertrophy without muscle damage. (Zanchi et al., 2010) This suggests that lactate accumulation during BFR training may stimulate muscle growth through mechanisms independent of muscle damage.
The benefits of BFR training include the following:
- Muscle Hypertrophy: BFR training has been shown to result in skeletal muscle hypertrophy. (Torma et al., 2021)
- Strength and Endurance: Increased muscle size, strength, and endurance capacity have been observed with BFR training.(Pignanelli et al., 2021)
- Rehabilitation: It’s an alternative training method for those unable to perform traditional aerobic or resistance exercise protocols, but it can still increase muscle mass and strength.(Freitas et al., 2021)
New Study Shows Lacto-Resistance Training Exercise Can Increase Muscle Growth
Lactate has recently become a focal point in the research for its potential hypertrophic effects on muscles. A new study introduces a new method called lacto-resistance exercise, emphasizing lactate production during exercise. The research compares muscle growth effects with traditional resistance training in professional bodybuilders.
The study involved 24 participants who performed traditional and lacto-resistance exercises in two sessions. The participants were divided into three groups:
A: Control group
B: Traditional resistance training: traditional resistance training; 5 sets of 15 to 12 reps at 80% 1RM., and
C: Lacto-resistance training: The ‘lacto-resistance training’ first did 30 reps at 30% 1RM to then performing 8 reps at 80% 1RM..
Both groups underwent a four-week resistance training program, and the changes in muscle cross-sectional area and one-repetition maximum were compared.
Lacto-Resistance Training Study Results
The Lacto-resistance exercise resulted in greater metabolic stress. The group showed significantly higher changes in blood lactate concentrations, muscle oxygen saturation, and plasma ammonia levels compared to traditional resistance exercise. Both groups showed significant improvements in 1RM squat and leg press. However, only the Lacto-resistance group resulted in greater increases in muscle size. (Hatami et al., 2023)
Lacto-resistance training has been identified as a useful hypertrophy-oriented exercise, even for professional athletes who may find traditional resistance training less effective in gaining muscle mass. This method emphasizes the role of lactate in muscle growth and offers a new avenue for enhancing athletic performance.
Lacto-resistance training offers a promising approach to increasing muscle growth through lactate-induced mechanisms. Research suggests that lactate acts as a signaling molecule, triggering metabolic stress and promoting muscle growth. By incorporating lacto-resistance training into your workout routine, you can unlock new muscle development levels. However, we need more studies to fully grasp the mechanisms driving lactate-induced muscle growth and the long-term effects of this training method. As scientists and athletes continue their exploration, stay updated on further research and advancements in lactate-induced muscle growth.
de Freitas, M. C., Gerosa-Neto, J., Zanchi, N. E., Lira, F. S., & Rossi, F. E. (2017). Role of metabolic stress for enhancing muscle adaptations: Practical applications. World J Methodol, 7(2), 46-54. https://doi.org/10.5662/wjm.v7.i2.46
Freitas, E. D. S., Karabulut, M., & Bemben, M. G. (2021). The Evolution of Blood Flow Restricted Exercise [Review]. Frontiers in Physiology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.747759
Hatami, M., Nikooie, R., & Enhesari, A. (2023). Lacto-resistance training: a method to facilitate muscle hypertrophy in professional bodybuilders. Sport Sciences for Health. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-023-01106-3
Krzysztofik, M., Wilk, M., Wojdała, G., & Gołaś, A. (2019). Maximizing Muscle Hypertrophy: A Systematic Review of Advanced Resistance Training Techniques and Methods. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(24).
Kyun, S., Yoo, C., Park, H.-Y., Kim, S.-U., & Lim, K. (2020). The Effects of Exogenous Lactate Administration on the IGF1/Akt/mTOR Pathway in Rat Skeletal Muscle. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217805
Lawson, D., Vann, C., Schoenfeld, B. J., & Haun, C. (2022). Beyond Mechanical Tension: A Review of Resistance Exercise-Induced Lactate Responses & Muscle Hypertrophy. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology, 7(4).
Miller, B. C., Tirko, A. W., Shipe, J. M., Sumeriski, O. R., & Moran, K. (2021). The Systemic Effects of Blood Flow Restriction Training: A Systematic Review. Int J Sports Phys Ther, 16(4), 978-990. https://doi.org/10.26603/001c.25791
Pignanelli, C., Christiansen, D., & Burr, J. F. (2021). Blood flow restriction training and the high-performance athlete: science to application. Journal of Applied Physiology, 130(4), 1163-1170. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00982.2020
Schoenfeld, B. J., Peterson, M. D., Ogborn, D., Contreras, B., & Sonmez, G. T. (2015). Effects of Low- vs. High-Load Resistance Training on Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy in Well-Trained Men. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 29(10), 2954-2963. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000000958
Shirai, T., Kitaoka, Y., Uemichi, K., Tokinoya, K., Takeda, K., & Takemasa, T. (2022). Effects of lactate administration on hypertrophy and mTOR signaling activation in mouse skeletal muscle. Physiol Rep, 10(16), e15436. https://doi.org/10.14814/phy2.15436
Torma, F., Gombos, Z., Fridvalszki, M., Langmar, G., Tarcza, Z., Merkely, B., Naito, H., Ichinoseki-Sekine, N., Takeda, M., Murlasits, Z., Osvath, P., & Radak, Z. (2021). Blood flow restriction in human skeletal muscle during rest periods after high-load resistance training down-regulates miR-206 and induces Pax7. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 10(4), 470-477. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2019.08.004
Tsukamoto, S., Shibasaki, A., Naka, A., Saito, H., & Iida, K. (2018). Lactate Promotes Myoblast Differentiation and Myotube Hypertrophy via a Pathway Involving MyoD in Vitro and Enhances Muscle Regeneration in Vivo. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113649
Zanchi, N. E., Lira, F. S., Seelaender, M., & Lancha-Jr, A. H. (2010). Experimental Chronic Low-Frequency Resistance Training Produces Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy in the Absence of Muscle Damage and Metabolic Stress Markers. Cell Biochemistry and Function. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbf.1665
Lactate, a product of glycolysis, plays a vital role in muscle cell growth and development. This article delves into the complex relationship between lactate and muscle growth, exploring various aspects such as glucose uptake, inflammation, insulin resistance, and more. The purpose of the current study is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the metabolic pathways involved.
Lactate Production and Muscle Growth
During intense exercise, glycolysis breaks down glucose into pyruvate, which is then converted into lactate in the cytoplasm of muscle cells. This process is facilitated by the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. The accumulation of lactate leads to a decrease in pH, affecting muscle fibers and myosin function.
Lactate also plays a role in insulin-mediated glucose uptake, influencing glucose homeostasis. This is particularly relevant for older adults and individuals with obesity, where insulin resistance can be a significant risk factor.
Metabolic Pathways and Muscle Growth
The metabolic pathways involved in muscle growth are complex. Phosphorylation of glycogen and other substrates leads to energy production, essential for muscle contraction. The TCA cycle further metabolizes acetyl-CoA, derived from pyruvate, into energy.
Lipid metabolism and fatty acid oxidation also contribute to energy production, with gene expression and protein expression playing crucial roles in muscle development. Post-translational modification, including acetylation of lysine, is involved in regulating these processes.
Inflammation and Muscle Growth
Inflammation is a double-edged sword in muscle growth. While acute inflammation can stimulate growth through growth factors and signal transduction, chronic inflammation, such as in septic shock, can be detrimental.
Exercise Physiology and Muscle Health
Physical activity is essential for maintaining muscle health. Exercise physiology explores how exercise affects various cell types, including muscle cells. Regular exercise promotes glucose uptake, reduces insulin resistance, and stimulates collagen production in adipose tissue.
Genetic and Molecular Aspects
Exercise and lactate levels influence the DNA and chromatin structure in muscle cells. They also affect antibody production and immune response, which has implications for overall muscle health.
Conclusion: Current Study and Future Directions
The current study has explored the multifaceted relationship between lactate and muscle growth, touching on aspects like carbohydrate metabolism, enzyme function, mm (millimolar) concentrations of lactate, and more.
Understanding these complex interactions offers insights into conditions like obesity, insulin resistance, and age-related muscle decline in older adults. Future research may focus on specific interventions to optimize lactate levels for muscle growth, considering factors like diet, exercise, and pharmacological treatments.
In conclusion, lactate is more than just a byproduct of exercise; it’s a critical component in the intricate web of metabolic, genetic, and physiological processes that contribute to muscle growth and health. We can develop targeted strategies to enhance muscle development and overall well-being by continuing to explore these connections.
Can you combine Lacto-Resistance Training with other types of exercise?
Yes, Lacto-Resistance Training can be combined with other types of exercise. It is a versatile training method that can be incorporated into various workout routines, allowing bodybuilders to achieve optimal muscle growth by combining lactate production with resistance training techniques.